The urachus or
median umbilical ligament is an epithelial tubular structure located in the midline
that spreads from the anterosuperior part of the bladder to the umbilicus,
connecting the apex of the urinary bladder with the allantois in the fetus, and
is involved in forming the umbilical structures. It is the embryological
remnant of the cloaca and the allantois. The lumen of the urachus usually
becomes obliterated during embryonic development. Descent of the bladder toward
the pelvis stretches the urachus, eventually leading to obliteration of its
lumen. The median umbilical ligament is the resultant fibrous cord that runs
from the umbilicus to the dome of the bladder. Occasionally, this obliterative
process is incomplete, leading to a persistent urachal remnant (UR)1.
UR diseases are rare and typically present in early childhood with unspecific
symptoms such as abdominal pain or urinary problems. Urachal anomalies can be
classified into congenital and acquired anomalies.
It is of four
urachus, which communicates the bladder with the umbilicus;
cyst (54%), a part of the urachal canal without any patent connection with the
bladder or the umbilicus;
diverticulum, a structure that opens within the bladder;
sinus (30%), which is a form of a cyst communicating with the umbilicus.
anomalies are infections and malignant degeneration. Remnants found in neonates
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